Algorithms are useful, not always, but most of the time.
The basic premise is that it is a set of steps to achieve a task.
These are very important in the world of programing, we want algorithms to solve a problem and confirm that the answer is correct. Also that the code being executed is efficient. Asymptotic Analysis is used to assess the effectiveness of an algorithm.
One very effective way to get your head around algorithms is the course at han Academy which is a nice introduction, which explains some of the key beginner points very well.
After that look at
It is important that as a programmer your code does not just work it should also be efficient, maintainable and easy to understand, the majority of other good programmers will be armed with knowledge of algorithms and unless you find a greater way of solving the problem which is much better, it is always better to have in your corner the knowledge of algorithms, which are very transferable across almost all computer languages